We used focused ultrasound (FUS) sonication of the anterior cingualte and striatum to disrupt local processing during learning. FUS in ACC slowed down learning of atetntion sets – but only when the attentional demands were high and the task included the risk of loosing already attaiuned reward tokens. Under these cognitive and motivaitonally challenging conditions FUS reduce the ability to adapt and update attentional sets. See our paper Banaie Boroujeni et al. (2022) The anterior cingulate cortex causally supports flexible learning under motivationally challenging and cognitively demanding conditions. PLoS Biology. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.08.04.455080.